- Content is most important thing for clear passage
- Logic thinking.
- Learnable rules of style
What else to do?
- Pay attention to the ‘tricks’ writers use
Academic writings habits might be not good
Try not to bore the readers
Prepared, not special inspiration
心理准备: writing is hard for everyone
First draft is never perfect -> revise
A checklist of things I have to do:
|read more, and look for skills of a good essay|
|Add interesting elements into my writings|
|Once prepared, Start Right away.|
|Write out whatever sh*t I am writing, and revise it later. (大胆往下写，莫回头啊莫回头)|
1.2 Something to Avoid
- easy to read?
- enjoyable and interesting?
- to inform or to obscure?
A bad habit in academic writings:
Verb -> noun
Complex idea != complex writing
- Don’t write too complicated sentences
- Verb > noun (-tion, -ing, etc)
1.3 Some principles
More bad features:
nouns rather than verbs
vague words: “physiologic”
unnecessary jargon and acronyms:
- if it is made up, then readers have to adjust to the acronym
- only the very conventional acronyms should be used.
The distance between the subject and main verb is too far *
- Cut unnecessary words and phrases
- active voice
- use verb
Could be a revision checklist:
|1.||remove unnecessary adj.|
|2.||move verb and subject close|
|3.||use active voice if possible|
1.3 Cutting Clutters
|provides a review||reviews|
|the basic tenets of cancer…||cancer…|
|illustrate xxx or demonstrate xxx||illustrate xxx and xxx|
This paper provides a review of the basic tenets of cancer biology study design, using as examples studies that illustrate the methodologic challenges or that demonstrate successful solutions to the difficulties inherent in biological research.
This paper reveiws cancer biology study design, using examples that illustrate specific challenges and solutions.
|As it is well known||omitted|
|has been related to a profile of||is associated with|
|for the concept||omitted|
Try to cut first. (yes, at least try)
- Dead words:
- as it is shown…
- as it is well known…
- it should be emphasized that…
- Empty words and phrases:
- basic tenets of
- concept of…
- Long words
- Unnecessary jargon and acronym
- successful solutions
- very, really, quite, basically, generally, etc.
|wordy version||crisp version|
|A majority of||most|
|a number of||many|
|Are of the same opinion||agree|
|less frequently occurring||rare|
|all three of the||the three|
|give rise to||cause|
|due to the fact that||because|
The ultimate thing to do is to shorten your writing.
Most essential ones for me:
- dead words
Power Snail STUDIES