Generative Grammar and Four Types of Grammars: Parsing Techniques Notes (1)

some notes on Parsing Techniques A Practical Guide

Generative Grammar

There are several views of defining a language. The computer science and formal linguistics perspective:

terms definition
Language a set of sentences
Sentence a sequence of symbols
Alphabet a set of all symbols

The semantics - meaning - of a sentence is described by its tokens cooperating with its structure.

Grammar is the set of rules describing a language. Generative Grammar is

Language can be specified by infinite Bit-String

Sorted Alphabet: $\Sigma$ Language $\Sigma^{* }$ contains all combinations of symbols in $\Sigma$

The order of sentences in $\Sigma^* $ follows that:

from length $l = 0$

  1. Enumerate all combinations that of length $l$
  2. these combinations are listed according to alphabetical order (lexicographical sorting)
  3. increment $l$ and repeat from 1.

This will form an infinitely long sorted list. Every language composed by alphabet $\Sigma$ can be identified by choosing from $\Sigma^* $. If we encode this by binary representation, 0 → not including, 1 → including, we can create an infinitely long bit string that indicates every sentence the language contains.

For example: Language $L = 010010110…$

Formal Grammar

Recipe of replacing symbols:

Name  -> tom | dick | harry // Name may be replaced by tom, dick or harry

A grammar is a 4-tuple $(V_N, V_T, R, S)$:

Four types of Grammars

Type 0: Phrase Structure Grammar (PS Grammar)

Most freedom. Follows 4-tuple $(V_N, V_T, R, S)$, without further restriction. Represented as Directed Acyclic Graph: No cycle exists

Type 1: Context-Sensitive Grammar (CS Grammar)

There are two equivalent definitions: Monotonic and Context-Sensitive. Can be represented by a DAG, similar to PS Grammar.


For each rule, left-hand side has more or equal number of symbols to right-hand side.


Every rule is context-sensitive.

Type 2: Context-Free Grammar (CF Grammar)

LHS could only contain one non-terminal symbol. (Thus not related to neighboring symbols). Represented by a tree, as branches of a node is not relevant to other nodes.

The generative power of CF Grammar comes from two operations:

NT -> tom | NT dick | ...

Type 3: Regular Grammar

Mostly referring to right regular grammar. Each rule could only contain one non-terminal, as the rightmost item. Represented by a list, because each sentential has only one replaceable item (non-terminal), or in a production chain.

All regular grammar can be expressed in a regular expression, which sufficiently equal to all rules in the grammar.

Regular Expression Notation Styles:

Notation Description
$^{+ }$ One or more instances of the left-adjacent item
$^{* }$ Zero or more instances of the left-adjacent item
$^{? }$ Zero or one instance of the left-adjacent item
$[abc]$ Choosing one from $(a, b, c)$, i.e., $(a\mid b\mid c)$


$S_S\to(([tdh],)^{* }[tdh] & )^{? }[tdh]$

Type 4: Finite Choice Grammar (FC Grammar)

Each rule could have only terminals in right-hand side. Very limited expressive power.